Current tire compositions include a wide variety of additives and compounds, including several types of rubber, carbon black, silica, polyester, etc. End-of-life (ELF) tires are considered as non-hazardous waste according to the Waste Directive and the European Waste List, but their landfilling is forbidden according to the Landfill Directive.


A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple alkene, and belongs to the largest group of thermoplastics. The term polyolefin means “oil-like”, referring to the oily or waxy feel of the material. They are mostly used in consumer goods, structural plastics, food packaging and industrial products and more than 30 % of the plastic consumed in Europe consists of polyolefin. However, producing new polyolefin is remarkably resource-demanding, as the manufacturing process of 1 kg polyolefin requires around 2 kg of oil. Due to technological shortcomings in the fields of technical waste treatment and plastics separation treatment, there is no way to produce high-quality secondary raw plastics material from complex waste at a reasonable cost. Today, polyolefin recyclers focus mainly on the relatively pure post industrial waste, since these wastes can be made into high-purity product materials by existing and cost-effective process technology.